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How UHS clinicians prescribe antibiotics The way clinicians prescribe antibiotics can be confusing. Why do they prescribe them at some times but not at others, and for one patient but not the next?
Antibiotics have been extremely effective and often lifesaving in the treatment of some infectious diseases, but they don't cure all illnesses and can sometimes even cause significant medical problems. Therefore, it is important that antibiotics are administered appropriately.
Health care providers have seen unfortunate complications of innappropriate antibiotic use and, as a result, try to discriminate in using these potent medications. Antibiotics are prescribed when appropriate but are not used when dealing with a viral infection where the medication will do no good and has the potential for significant harm. While it is tempting for individuals to look for a quick and easy cure when ill, more often than not antibiotics are not the answer.
If you have visited UHS for medical care but continue to feel ill or develop additional symptoms, please contact UHS for follow-up.
Antibiotics fight bacterial (not viral) infections Antibiotics typically are effective against bacteria but not against viruses. Therefore, antibiotics do not help in viral illnesses such as measles, mumps, flu and common colds. Studies have shown that the vast majority of infectious diseases in college-age patients are viral rather than bacterial infections. Even bronchitis and walking pneumonia are most commonly viral in nature in this age group. (In practice, antibiotics are often used to treat these infections because differentiating between bacterial and viral infections is difficult.) Although researchers are attempting to develop new categories of drugs to combat viral diseases, few drugs are currently available.
See a brief Video on Antibiotic Resistance from the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention.
Clinicians use clinical history, examination and laboratory tests to distinguish between viral and bacterial infections. Patients with bacterial infections generally appear more acutely ill, often displaying shaking, chills and high fever, and their white blood cell counts are high. Clinicians may use cultures from the throat, sputum, urine, blood or wound to identify the bacteria along with its antibiotic sensitivity. This information helps the clinician choose an antibiotic that will be effective.
UHS clinicians are well prepared to evaluate for methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureas (MRSA), a bacterium that is resistant to certain antibiotics. For more on MRSA, see the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .
Complications of antibiotic use include:
Allergic reactions: You can develop an allergy at any time, even if you have safely used the antibiotic in the past. Prior use is not a guarantee that a person will not develop an allergic response. Most allergic reactions to antibiotics are relatively minor skin reactions. However, occasionally life-threatening allergic reactions occur, with swelling of the throat and difficulty breathing. If you think you are having an allergic reaction, stop taking the medication and contact your clinician (see Further information).
Impact on body balance: Antibiotics cannot distinguish between normal body bacteria and disease-causing bacteria. The result is often a disturbance in the natural balance of organisms, which may lead to severe diarrhea or, more commonly, yeast vaginitis in women. Other complications may arise from the side effects of certain antibiotics, such as severe gastrointestinal upset, sun sensitivity and interactions with other medications.
Bacterial resistance: Many people mistakenly believe that people can “get used to” an antibiotic. This is not the case, but bacteria can develop resistance to an antibiotic. The more antibiotics are used, the more resistance is evident. Some bacteria are resistant to all known antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance has become a major concern in the US, as well as in certain developing countries where antibiotics are available without prescription. In countries where antibiotic use is limited, bacteria have become more sensitive to antibiotics.
Tips for using antibiotics:
- Take your antibiotic as instructed by your clinician or pharmacist.
- Take an antibiotic until all the medication is gone.
- Take an antibiotic only for the condition for which it is prescribed.
- Certain antibiotics may interact with food or other medications or may make you more sensitive to sunlight or cause dizziness. Consult your clinician or pharmacist if you are unsure about such interactions.
- Alert your clinician or pharmacist to any new medical conditions that arise during your antibiotic therapy.
- Never share antibiotics with friends or family.
- Do not take expired antibiotics.
- Make an Appointment. Appointments are required for most medical services, however options are available for urgent concerns.
- Nurse Advice by Phone is available day and night, which may save a trip to UHS, the ER or an urgent care facility.
- UHS Pharmacy can provide information about antibiotics or other medicines; call 734-764-7387.
See also the US Food and Drug Administration.